TOPIC: HISTORY & CULTURAL HERITAGE
(INDIA AND KARNATAKA)
202nd ANNIVERSARY OF BATTLE OF KOREGAON
Context: Lakhs of devotees congregated near the Ransthamb or victory pillar in Bhima-Koregaon village for the 202nd anniversary of the Bhima-Koregaon battle of 1818 on New Year’s Day on1st January.
BATTLE OF KOREGAON
- Battle of Koregaon(also called the Battle of Koregaon, Bhima, after the river Bhima that flows close to it) was fought on 1 January 1818 between the British East India Company and the Peshwa faction of the Maratha Confederacy, at Koregaon Bhima.
- A 28,000-strong force led by Peshwa Baji Rao IIwhilst on their way to attack the company-held Pune, were unexpectedly met by an 800-strong Company force that was on its way to reinforce the British troops in Pune.
- The Peshwa dispatched around 2,000 soldiers to attack the force which sought entrenchment in Koregaon.
- Led by Captain Francis Staunton, the Company troops defended their position for nearly 12 hours, before the Peshwa’s troops ultimately withdrew, fearing the imminent arrival of a larger British force.
- The battle was part of the Third Anglo Maratha war, a series of battles that culminated in the defeat of the Maratha Empire (under the Peshwas) and subsequent rule of the British East India Company in nearly all of Western, Central and Southern India.
- The “victory pillar” (obelisk) in Koregaon was built commemorating the battle.
TOPIC: INDIAN ECONOMY-PLANNING
RS 102 LAKH CRORE OF INFRA PROJECTS FOR NEXT 5 YEARS
Context: Finance Minister on 31st December, 2019 unveiled Rs 102 lakh crore of infrastructure projects that will be implemented in the next five years as part of the government’s spending push in the infrastructure sector.
- The plan calls for a 13.6 lakh crore investment in 2019-20, a big ask considering that 2018-19 investment in infrastructure by the Centre, States and the private sector was only 10 lakh crore, a slight drop from the previous year’s investment of 10.2 lakh crore.
- The funds would come from budgetary and extra-budgetary resources, as well as funds raised from the market and internal accruals of the relevant state-owned companies
- Almost a quarter of the capital expenditure is going to the energy sector, with 24.5 lakh crore expected to be invested in power, renewable energy, atomic energy and petroleum and natural gas.
- The Centre, States and the private sector are to share the capital expenditure in a 39:39:22 formulas.
- The other major focus areas are roads (19%) and railways (13%), urban (16%) and rural (8%) infrastructure, and irrigation (8%).
- Social infrastructure, including health and education, will get 3% of the capital expenditure, with digital communication and industrial expenditure each getting the same amount as well.
- Agriculture and food processing infrastructure will get one per cent of the planned capital expenditure.
- This would be a significant increase over the last six years, when the Centre and States together spent 51 lakh crore on infrastructure.
- The announcement came on the same day that the government released data showing that the output of eight core infrastructure industries shrank by 1.5% in November 2019, the fourth straight month of negative growth.
- In November 2018, these sectors had expanded by 3.3%. According to the official data, the country’s production of coal, crude oil, natural gas, steel and electricity shrank in comparison to last November, while cement production growth slowed.
- On Independence Day, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had announced plans to invest 100 lakh crore on modern infrastructure.
- This is the expenditure needed to achieve a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25.
TOPIC: INDIAN ECONOMY-PLANNING
MYSUGAR TO RECOMMENCE CRUSHING OF CANE IN JUNE 2020
Context: The iconic Mysugar mill (Mysore Sugar Company Ltd.), is set to recommence operations after two years, according to Sugar Minister C.T. Ravi.
Mysugar mill is the State’s first sugar mill and the only one to be run by the government,
At the Karnataka Development Programme (KDP) review meeting held at the Mandya Zilla Panchayat auditorium on December 23, 2019, a resolution had been passed to ask the State to lease out Mysugar and Pandavapura Sahakari Sakkare Karkhane (PSSK) sugar mills.
- Mysugar, which was established in 1934, is considered the source of sustenance for cane-growing families in 102 villages in Mandya, Pandavapura and Srirangapatnam taluks.
- It is among the oldest operating mills in Asia.
- The mill is registered as a ‘sick unit’ with the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction owing to the poor administration, nepotism, political interference and financial irregularities.
- The mill, once a rich unit, has already decided to relieve 110 of 390 workers under the Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS). Mysugar has not crushed cane since December 2018 owing to the overhaul issues.
SUGARCANE YIELD IN KARNATAKA
- Karnataka is India’s third-largest sugar producer.
Karnataka has 85 sugar factories of which 67 are functional
- In Karnataka, the sugarcaneis cultivated over an area of 4.80 lakh ha with production 36.76 million tonnes of sugarcane and productivity of 85.50 tonnes per hectare (India stat 2015-2016).
- Belgaum, Bagalkot, Mandya, Vijayapur and Bidar are the leading districts in terms of area under sugarcane
- In 2018-19, a total of 410.65 lakh metric tonnes case was crushed by the factories and sugar production was 44.31 lakh metric tonnes.
- Globally, India has reached the number one spot in sugarcane production.
- Within the country, Uttar Pradesh ranks first followed by Maharashtra and Karnataka.
- Commissionerate of Sugar and Directorate of Cane Development is situated Bengaluru.
PAPER II: GENERAL STUDIES 1
TOPIC: HISTORY & CULTURAL HERITAGE
(INDIA AND KARNATAKA)
Context: The Marikamba jaatre which is celebrated once in two years is being held from March 3rd to March 11th, 2020.
ABOUT THE JAATRE
- The Sirsi Marikamba jaatre (chariot procession) of the deity is held every alternate year in the month of February and taken through the town.
- It is attended by a very large number of devotees.
- It is said to be the most famous and biggest fair (jaatre) of the state of Karnataka.
- Devotees from all around the state participate in this enormous event indulging themselves in the procession.
- Amusements for children, circuses, variety of shops, dramas and plays and many such things are set up for the people.
- It depicts the story of the goddess killing Mahishasura.
- The Goddess is taken out in a procession to the jaatre pandal and placed on a “Gadduge”. Various pujas are performed to mark the festivities.
- The Marikamba Templein Sirsi, Karnataka, is a Hindu temple dedicated to a form of the goddess Durga.
- It is also known as Doddamma Temple, with “Doddamma” denoting the “elder sister” of all Mariammasin Karnataka.
- The central icon is an eight-armed image of Durga, also known by the names Renukaand Yellamma.
- It is 83 kilometres (52 mi) to the east of Gokarna.
- Built in 1688, the Sirsi Marikamba Temple is one of the “Jagratha Shakti Peethas” in the State.
- Two legends are popularly associated with the temple.
- According to the first one, Basava, a youth belonging to the Asadi community, saw a dream in which the Goddess appeared and told him that she was in a tank called Devikere.
- Basava, who revealed the dream to his elders, went along with them to the tank where they found a wooden box with an idol in it. The box was taken in a procession and the idol was installed in a “Nagarabana”.
- The second legend says that a young woman from an upper caste married a man from a lower caste without knowing his origin. They were happily married and had two children.
- One day, she learnt about her husband’s caste from her children. Infuriated, she killed him.
- Later, she repented for her act and performed Sati. The jaatre is held in commemoration of the act.
- It starts with the marriage of Marikamba and ends in setting fire to the pandal to symbolise the Sati.
SLAUGHTER OF ANIMALS
- Prior to Mahatma Gandhi’s visit to Sirsi in 1934, buffaloes were being sacrificed at the temple.
- But the Mahatma prevailed upon the people to stop animal sacrifice, following which the practice was given up.
- The slaughter of sheep was stopped in 1962.
QUESTION: What is the Marikamba jaatre of Sirsi? What is the legend behind the temple? (15marks)
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS QUIZ
- The Bhima-Koregaon battle was fought between _ _ _ ?
- East India company vs. Peshwa Nana Saheb
- East India company vs. Raja Gangadharrao Newalkar of Jhansi
- Peshwa Baji Rao-II vs. the alliance of Holkar, Scindias and Bhonsles
- East India company vs. Peshwa Baji Rao-II
- Which of the following statements regarding the Mysugar mill of Karnataka is not true?
- It is the State’s first sugar mill.
- It is the only one to be run by the government
- It was established in 1934
- It is considered the source of sustenance for cane-growing families in north Karnataka.
- The Sirsi Marikamba jaatre is said to be the most famous and biggest fair of the state of Karnataka. Here Marikamba refers to which Hindu goddess?
- Commissionerate of Sugar and Directorate of Cane Development of Karnataka is located in —–
An expenditure which is non-recurring and irregular is called:
Short term expenditure
ANSWERS: (1-d, 2-d, 3-c, 4-a, 5-c)