PAPER – II General Studies 1
Section – I : History and Cultural Heritage (India & Karnataka ) – (6 Units)
Unit 1: Cultural Heritage of India (select areas and topics)
(i) Indus Civilization – Distinction between Indus Civilization and Vedic Civilization– Evolution of Varna, Jathi/caste system – Religious condition – emergence of religious movements.
(ii) Literature: Sanskrit Literature (Ancient) : Vedic Literature, the epics and the Puranas: their impact on the life and culture of the Indian People; Prose works on polity, ethics (neeti), popular stories and Pancha Tantra (only important works); Mughal contributions to literature.
(iii) Science and Technology: Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Physiology and Medicine (including Surgery), Ship-building, Mining and Metallurgy, Engineering and Architecture.
(iv) Arts (Excluding Karnataka): The Maurya and Gupta periods; The Khajuraho temples; Jain temples at Mount Abu and the Odishyan temples; Pallava, Chola and Pandyan contributions. The Mughal architecture; Cathedral architecture: Bom Jesus-Old Goa, St. Paul’s- Kolkata and St. Thomas- Chennai. Painting : Ajanta frescoes; Mughal and Rajput schools of painting. Dance and Music: Classical music and dance; Mughal contributions to music. Folk arts of India.
(v) India’s cultural contributions to the outside world: Central Asia, China, Japan, South-East Asia and Sri Lanka.
(vi) Religions of India-
(i) Hindu Dharma: General characteristics and some common beliefs – Purusharthas– rituals and ethics – festivals and sacred days – pilgrimage and fairs. Hindu sects: Hinduism as a federation of various sects – Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta. Philosophy of the Upanishad and the BhagavadGita – Yoga Philosophy of Pathanjali.
(ii) Jainism: Principles – Ratnatraya, code of morals, Equality (samana), Ahimsa,. Sects: Digambara and Swethambara.
(iii) Buddhism: Principles – Four noble truths, The Eight – fold path, Nirvana, Moral doctrines. Sects: Hinayana and Mahayana
(iv) Christianity: Teachings of Jesus Christ. Christian doctrines and theology. Groups in Christianity – The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern orthodox churches and the Protestants churches. Missionary activities in India
(v) Islam: Principles and practices – God, Confession of Faith, Five “Pillars of Islam”, sacred places and days, the family system and the shariah, Sufis of Karnataka, Sects: Shia and Sunni.
(vi) Sikhism: Principles and practices and its Evolution.
Unit 2 : Toward transforming Indian Society : Major schools of thought.
Modern Indian History – from the beginning of 19th Century, Reforms and Reformers,
- Eradication of Social and religious wrongs
- The Vedas for all – The Casteless society
- Ideal of service
- Emancipation of the Depressed class
- “Two-Nation” theory and Islamic revivalism
- Empowerment of the Depressed class through religion and education
- Hindutva and Patriotism
- The Dravida Movement
- Struggle for emancipation of Dalits and their empowerment
- Socialist approach and Total Revolution
- Gram Swaraj, Satyagraha and Bhoodana
Unit 3 : From Kadambas to the Hoysalas.
(i) Antiquity of Karnataka; Kannada language and literature; Extent of Kannadanadu; State and District Gazetteers; Museums and Archives in Karnataka; Preservation and protection of historical monuments – work of Archaeological Survey of India – World Heritage Sites in Karnataka.
(ii) From Kadambas to the Hoysalas : Contributions to Architecture, sculpture, literature and religion.
Unit 4 : The Vijayanagara Empire and thereafter (1336-1799).
(i) Vijayanagara Empire: Origin, aims and aspiration of the Empire – Vidyaranya. Political history : Harihara, Bukka, Immadi Devaraya, Krishnadevaraya and Aliya Ramaraya – The battle of Talikote and its consequences. Glory of the capital – Administration – Society, economy and religion; Arts: Painting; Music, Dance, Literature, Architecture and Sculpture; Foreign accounts of Vijayanagara.
(ii) Religious sects: Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhwacharya – Sri Basaveshvara, Veerashaivism and Vachana movement – Haridasa movement – Kalamukha, Shakta and Pashupatha sects.
(iii) The Bahman Shahis : Mahamud Gawan – Contributions of the Bahamani – Adil Shahis of Bijapur: Contributions to literature and architecture – Sufis in Karnataka.
(iv) Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar – Contributions; The Nayakas of Keladi and Chitradurga; Rani Chennamma & Sangolli Rayanna of Kittur, The Yalahanka Nadaprabhu; Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan (1761-1799).
Unit 5 : Modern Mysore (1799-1947).
(i) Krishna raja Wodeyar lll – his contributions;
(ii) Armed rebellion in Karnataka against the British in Karnataka
(iii) Commissioner’s Rule (1831-1881)
(iv) Nizam’s rule in Hyderabad – Karnataka
(v) Progress of Mysore under the Dewans.
Unit 6 : Freedom Movement in Karnataka and Unification (1885-1956).
(i) Rise of Nationalism; Pre-Gandhian era (1885-1920); Gandhian era (1920-1948).
(ii) Freedom movement in Hyderabad – Karnataka
(iii) Important personalities in Freedom Struggle.
(iv) Unification of Karnataka; Causes for the rise of unification movement – Alur Venkatrao – Role of literacy, cultural associations and print media – Three stages in the unification of Karnataka (1947-1956).
(v) Social and Cultural developments: Spread of education by missionary and voluntary bodies – printing and the press – Literary and Scholarly studies – New literary genres in kannada literature – Backward Class movement – Miller Committee Report, Folk arts of Karnataka.
Section II – Social and Political Perspective – ( 7 units )
- Post Independent Karnataka – Towards Political Consolidation – Attempts of Successive Governments – Backward Classes and Social Justice – Reports of : Havnur Committee – Venkataswamy Committee – Chinnappa Reddy Committee – Recent Trends – Dalit Movement – Devaraja Urs and Land Reforms. Language Issue: Gokak Movement – Issues and Perspectives. Inter-State Disputes – Boundary Disputes – Mahajan Committee Report and its impact – Water Disputes – Farmer’s Movement, Regional Imbalance & Nanjundappa committee Report.
- Social Change and Movements –Social structure and social change, Theories of Social Change, Social Disorganisation and Social movements, directed social change, social policy and social development.
- Social Change and Modernisation – Problems of role conflict – intergenerational gap, youth unrest & commercialization of education, emergence of India as Educational Force – changing status of women and social movements, industrialization and urbanization, role of pressure groups, Sanskritisation, westernisation and modernization – Modernism versus traditionalism. Current social evils – fundamentalism and terrorism, Naxalism, Nepotism, corruption, and black money.
- Government and Political System – Legislature, Executive and Judiciary, functioning of democratic political system in a traditional society, political party and their social composition.
- Decentralisation of power – Decentralisation of power and political participation. Union Government, Parliament, Cabinet, Supreme court, Judicial review, Center-State relations, State government, role of Governor, Panchayathi raj, class and caste in Indian politics, politics of regionalism, linguism, and communalism. Problems of secularisation policy and national integration, Political participation & voting, vote bank politics.
- Socio Economic System – The Jajmani system and its bearing on traditional society. Market Economy and its social consequences, Occupational diversification and social structure, Profession and professionalisation, role of trade unions, social determinants and consequence of economical development, economic inequalities, exploitation and corruption, Globalisation and its social impact.
- Rural Social system and Rural Development – Socio cultural dimensions of village community, traditional power structure, democratization and leadership, poverty, indebtedness, bonded labour, social consequences of land reforms, Rural development projects, green revolution, new strategies of rural development, the changing rural scene.
Section III – Indian Economy – Planning- Rural Development (8 units)
- Indian Economy – Post independence growth – experience of agriculture, industry and tertiary sectors, growth and distributive justice. Poverty and inequality, Growth of Karnataka Economy during the plan era, growth and sectoral changes and linkages in the State Economy.
- India and International economic relations– Growth and trade – volume, composition and direction of exports and imports, domestic and foreign capital in economic development, changes in India’s foreign trade policy, balance of payments and foreign exchange. Karnataka’s exports – volume, composition, and direction.
- Development patterns and disparities among regions and between rural and urban areas, public policies to mitigate disparities, prospects and problems of Special economic zones. Development disparities in Karnataka and public policies, Redressel of development disparities. Regional development boards.
- Planning – Planning goals, objectives and approaches, achievements and failures of five year plans (I to VII Five year plans). Development plans under the new economic policies regime (VIII Five year plan onwards). Planning in Karnataka.
- Decentralization – pros and cons of top-down planning and bottom-up planning, planning mechanism and experience in Panchayathi raj institutions, planning and capacity building, planning and financing. Decentralized planning in Karnataka, Resource mobilization and devolution. District Planning Committee, State finances and local finances. State finance commission.
- Rural Development – Importance of agriculture in the national economy, Gandhian approach to rural development and land reforms, size of farms and productivity, problems of irrigation and dry land farming, food security, rural credit, agricultural marketing, agricultural labour, rural industries and employment. Agricultural problems in Karnataka, Rural Economic infrastructure (Energy, Irrigation, Transport, Communication, Markets), Rural Social Infrastructure – Housing, Drinking water, Sanitation & Drainage, Rural Health systems and their delivery. Development of Economic and Social infrastructure in Karnataka, Rural markets in Karnataka. Rural housing and health care schemes in Karnataka.
- Rural Development Initiatives – Poverty Alleviation-cum-Employment generation Programmes, Five Year Plan and inclusive growth, rural financial institutions, Development and conservation of common property resources in rural areas – village grasslands and woods, water bodies, Provision of urban amenities in rural areas (PURA). Rural Development schemes in Karnataka, self help groups and micro finance institutions in Karnataka, External assistance for rural tank rejuvenation, drinking water, sanitation and health care in Karnataka.
- Data Collection Analysis- Interpretation- Collection, Interpretat ion and Appreciation of Statistical Data- Study of Graphs and Charts:– Bar Graphs, Line Graphs and Pie Charts- Problems Based on Tabular and Diagrammatical Data- Data Sufficiency in Statistics- Problems Based on Probability- Permutations and Combinations-Quantitative Aptitude – Number Sequences, Series, Averages, Number Systems, Ratio and Proportion, Profit and Loss, Percentages, Time and work, Speed-Time-Distance, Simple Interest, Analytical and Critical Reasoning, Reading Comprehension