Transport problems in urban india
As India is becoming urbanized, urban areas play a critical role in sustaining economic growth. City efficiency largely depends upon the effectiveness of its transport systems. Poor transport systems stifle economic growth and developmentThus , transport is backbone of country’s development.
Means of transportation in city
- private owned vehicles, government owned vehicles and intermediate vehicle services.
- Increased fuel consumption
- Increasing levels of noise and air pollution
- cost of travel
- Safety issues
- Poor condition of public transport
- Increasing urban population
- Bad condition of city roads
- Encroachment on footpaths that contributes in poor discipline in pedestrians who are forced to use roads to walk
- Absence of functional hierarchy of road network results into mixing up of local and regional traffic
- There is a lack of adequate public transport.
- There is a lack of civic sense towards traffic Absence of Mass Transit System
- Existing public transport system is over crowded during peak hours
- There is substantial increase in average household income. This has led to high private vehicle ownership
- Inadequate transportation infrastructure . Existing infrastructure can’t cope with the increasing demand
- Transport demand in most of the Indian cities has increased substantially due to increase in population as a result of both natural increase and migration from rural areas and smaller towns.
- lack of effective road-safety policies
Steps for Solving the Problems of Urban Transport
- There is no readymade universally acceptable solution to the urban transport problem. Planners, engineers, economists and transport technologists each have their own views, which when combined, invariably produced a workable strategy. Whatever policy evolved should be considered firstly, in the light of time it takes to implement them and secondly, all policies need to be appraised in terms of their cost.
The following common steps may be helpful in solving the problems of urban transport:
- Development of Additional Road Capacity:
- One of the most commonly adopted methods of combatting road congestion in medium and small towns or in districts of larger centres is the construction of bypasses to divert through-traffic. This practice has been followed throughout the world including India.
- Mid-twentieth century planners saw the construction of additional road capacity in the form of new or improved highways as the acceptable solution to congestion within major towns and cities.
- Traffic Management Measures:
- Temporary and partial relief from road traffic congestion may be gained from the introduction of traffic management schemes, involving he reorganisation of traffic flows and directions without any major structural alterations to the existing street pattern.
- Among the most widely used devices are the extension of one-way systems, the phasing of traffic-light controls to take account of traffic variation, and restrictions on parking and vehicle loading on major roads.
- On multi-lane highways that carry heavy volumes of commuter traffic, certain lanes can be allocated to incoming vehicles in the morning and to outgoing traffic in the afternoon, producing a tidal-flow effect. Recent experiments using information technology have been based upon intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS), with the computerised control of traffic lights and entrances to freeways, advice to drivers of alternative routes to avoid congestion, and information on weather and general road conditions. The IVHS can be linked up with advanced vehicle control systems, making use of in-car computer to eliminate driver error and control automatic braking and steering when accidents are imminent.
- Traffic management has been extensively applied within urban residential areas, where excessive numbers of vehicles produce noise, vibration, pollution and, above all, accident risks, especially to the young..
- Effective Use of Bus Service:
- Many transportation planning proposals are aimed specifically at increasing the speed and schedule reliability of bus services, and many European cities have introduced bus priority plans in an attempt to increase the attractions of public transport. Bus-only lanes, with or against the direction of traffic flow, are designated in heavily congested roads to achieve time savings, although such savings may later be dissipated when buses enter inner-city areas where priority lanes at intersections and certain streets may be restricted to buses only, particularly in pedestrianised shopping zones.
- Parking Restrictions:
- As we have seen, it is not possible to provide sufficient space for all who might like to drive and park in the central areas of large towns. Parking thus must be restricted and this is usually done by banning all-day parking by commuters or making it prohibitively expensive. Restrictions are less severe – off-peak, so that shoppers and other short-term visitors who benefit the economy of the centre are not deterred. Separate arrangements must be made for local residents, perhaps through permits or reserved parking.
- City authorities can thus control public car-parking places, but many other spaces are privately owned by businesses and reserved for particular employees. The effect of this is to perpetuate commuting to work by car.
- Promoting the Bicycle:
- The benefits of cycling have long been recognised. The bicycle is cheap to buy and run and is in urban areas often the quickest door-to-door mode (It is a benign form of transport, being noiseless, non-polluting, energy-and space-efficient and non-threatening to most other road users. A pro-cycling city would promote fitness among cyclists and health among non-cyclists. Cycling is thus a way of providing mobility, which is cheap for the individual and for society.
- Promoting Public Transport:
If ETM aims to shift trips away from cars, then attractive alternatives are required. Cycling and walking may be appropriate for the shorter distances, but transferring longer trips requires that a good quality public transport system is in place to ensure that the city can function efficiently.
This means that:
- Fares need to be low enough for poor people to be able to afford them;
- There must be sufficient vehicles for a frequent service to be run throughout the day;
- Routes must reflect the dominant desire lines of the travelling public and there should be extensive spatial coverage of the city so that no one is very far from a public transport stop;
- Speeds of buses need to be raised relative to cars by freeing them from congestion;
- It is not enough to provide public transport: it also has to be coordinated. Multi-modal tickets may be one essential ingredient of a functional urban transport system, but the key item is the integration of services by the provision of connections between modes.
- Other Measures:
Some of the other measures useful for urban transport planning are:
- Restrictions on road capacity and traffic speeds,
- Regulating traffic access to a link or area,
- Charging for the use of roads on a link, or area basis,
- Vehicle restraint schemes,
- Rail rapid transit,
- Transport coordination, and
- Public transport improvement, etc.